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My Chronic Lyme Disease Journey

How I Overcame Lyme Disease with Natural Herbal Therapy (Without Spending a Fortune)

by Dr. Bill Rawls
Last updated 2/16/17


Likely, you have come to this page in hopes of sorting out some of the confusion surrounding Lyme disease.

There is so much controversy around this disease because most doctors don’t understand it. Even many doctors, who consider themselves experts, do not completely comprehend its complexities.

But I have one qualification that most other physicians do not. My life—and a busy medical career were disrupted midstream by fibromyalgia, later diagnosed as Lyme disease.

My late 40s were marked by debilitating fatigue, tremendous brain fog, aching all over, burning in my feet and tingling in my hands, skin rashes, joint pain, chest pain, heart palpitations, mood changes, and poor sleep. I know what it’s like to start and end every day feeling like you have a terrible flu. Over several years, I experienced virtually every known symptom of Lyme disease.

Ultimately, this caused me to stop practicing obstetrics. But because I didn’t have a firm diagnosis at the time, declaring disability wasn’t an option. As an alternative, I started a less demanding primary care practice that did not require night call. The practice provided me with the environment I needed to recover. I had control over my work hours and the intensity of the work.

However, the obligations of the practice prevented me from leaving town and working limited hours created financial constraints. Traveling to see specialists in Lyme disease or having expensive labs done simply wasn’t possible

I had to figure things out using resources at my immediate disposal. Having since met numerous people who squandered life savings chasing heroic solutions that didn’t work, I now consider it a blessing in disguise. 

Over several years of persistent effort, I was able to recover my health completely — the things that I learned along the way changed my life forever. My struggle with chronic Lyme disease taught me things that most other physicians do not know. I now use that knowledge to help others understand and overcome this often frustrating illness. See Bill Rawls web site to Play video: 

Borrelia, the Misunderstood Microbe

Retrospectively, I may have harbored Borrelia burgdorferi (the microbe that causes Lyme disease) for years before I actually developed symptoms. I’m an outdoor person; tick bites have always been an everyday affair. 

It’s not uncommon for people to harbor Borrelia and not know it; stealth is this microbe’s middle name.

Lyme disease is mostly transmitted by nymphalid ticks, which are about the size of the pin. They bite, transmit the microbe, and then drop off — most people aren’t even aware of being bitten. Because symptoms of the initial infection are so mild (if they occur at all), it’s not uncommon for people to be completely unaware of being infected.

And Borrelia isn’t the only microbe to worry about. Ticks carry many microbes that have similar characteristics to Borrelia. What they all have in common is stealthy characteristics that make them hard to find–and even harder to get rid of.

If immune system function is robust, a person can harbor these types of microbes indefinitely without ever having symptoms. When illness does occur, it’s typically chronic and debilitating, but not life-threatening. Additionally, the degree of chronic illness is highly variable. Some people are severely debilitated, while others are only marginally miserable.
 

What You Need to Know About Borrelia

  • Borrelia rarely causes life-threatening illness, but it      can make you desperately miserable for a lifetime.
  • There are 20 known species of Borrelia that can cause      human illness (not just Borrelia      burgdorferi), and it is not uncommon for people with Lyme disease to      harbor at least two species.
  • Beyond Borrelia, there are hundreds of species of      stealth-type microbes that can be transmitted by ticks. Mycoplasma and      Bartonella are the most common, but there are many others. Most everyone      on the planet harbors some stealth microbes without knowing it.
  • All these factors make Lyme disease extremely difficult      to diagnose; lab tests are notoriously unreliable, especially in      chronic illness.
  • Because Borrelia is so difficult to diagnose and can be      harbored without causing symptoms, no one really knows how many      asymptomatic carriers there are worldwide.

Ready to Jumpstart Your Recovery? 

For a free appointment  Call 518-526-5012 

My Experience with Antibiotic Treatment for Lyme

When I was first diagnosed with Lyme disease, my first response was to try antibiotics. But every time I started a new round, I would be absolutely miserable by the second week. 

Nausea, abdominal discomfort, and generally feeling terrible all over increased until I was forced to stop the drug. Probiotics didn’t help and the same response occurred to different types of antibiotics. While some people tolerate antibiotic therapy better than others, it became obvious that I would have to find a different solution.

I later discovered that my experience was not unique; many people seem to have the same response.

I also met numerous people who had undergone 6-9 months of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy, only to be right back where they started within a couple of months of finishing the antibiotics.

Though there may be some logic in using antibiotics for 2-4 weeks during acute infection, many people develop symptoms despite initial use of antibiotics. 

As I came to know the microbe better, I began to understand why antibiotics are not necessarily a good treatment for chronic Lyme disease. Though some people do overcome Lyme disease with antibiotics, it doesn’t occur consistently enough to be considered reliable. To date, no clinical studies have shown benefit from long-term antibiotic therapy for chronic Lyme disease.
 

Why Antibiotics Have Limited Use for Chronic Lyme

#1. Borrelia is a highly evasive stealthy microbe

Borrelia clears the blood quickly and uses its corkscrew shape to penetrate deeply into tissues (including joint cartilage, brain, nerve tissue) where it is protected from antibiotics and the immune system. It can penetrate into cells, give up the corkscrew shape, and live inside of cells, thus gaining protection from the immune system and antibiotics. If confronted with a full antibiotic assault, it rolls up into dormant cyst and rides out the storm until the antibiotics are gone. 

#2. Borrelia grows very slowly

Antibiotics work best on highly threatening microbes that grow very rapidly and are densely congregated in localized areas in the body (like a pneumonia). Borrelia grows very slowly in the body and only occurs in very low concentrations in tissues. 

#3. Borrelia becomes part of the microbiome

Borrelia is a master at blending in with the trillions of other microbes that make up the human microbiome (the sum of all microbes in the body). Overwhelming the host is not its mission; it simply needs to scavenge enough resources to survive. Borrelia’s stealthy ability to lay low makes diagnosis and treatment a real challenge. 

#4. Microbial coinfections complicate therapy

Borrelia never occurs alone. There are many stealthy microbes (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Bartonella, EBV, CMV, others) that can occupy space in the microbiome. Sometimes they occur as coinfections with the tick bite, but they can already be present in the microbiome, without causing symptoms, when infection with Borrelia occurs. 

#5. Chronic use of antibiotics disrupts the microbiome3,4

Stealthy microbes, such as Borrelia (and also the co-infections), win by persistence, not aggression. They can hang on, protected from antibiotics by living inside cells and staying isolated in the deepest recesses of the body. Frequent use of antibiotics kills off normal flora in the gut and skin, allowing overgrowth of pathogens like Candida (yeast), C. Diff. and MRSA skin infections. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are more threatening than the microbes that cause Lyme disease. 

#6. Chronic use of antibiotics disrupts the immune system4

Disruption of the normal flora by antibiotics and emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens causes significant gut dysfunction. Because 70% of immune system functions are located in the gut, immune functions are also adversely affected. This adds fuel to the fire to an immune system that is already heavily taxed by an ongoing tug-of-war with stealth microbes. 

#7. Antibiotics can damage mitochondria inside cells5

Mitochondria, the powerhouses present in every cell in the body, were once primitive bacteria. A billion years ago, these high-energy bacteria were hijacked by cells of higher living creatures to produce energy. They became part of cells of all higher life forms, but they still retain bacteria-like characteristics. Having bacteria-like characteristics makes mitochondria susceptible to damage by many types of antibiotics. This may be why many people experience fatigue with antibiotic use. 

#8. Antibiotics can disrupt protective biofilm in the colon6,7,8

Borrelia can exist in biofilms, but how much this contributes to resistance to treatment is controversial. Possibly more concerning is the effect antibiotics have on natural biofilms in the colon. Friendly microbes create biofilm in the mucous lining of the distal small intestine and the large colon. This type of biofilm is protective and essential for a healthy colon. Long-term use of antibiotics can disrupt this protective barrier and increase risk of gut illnesses such as ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. 

#9. People are still searching for solutions

Possibly the most compelling suggestion that antibiotic therapy has significant limitations is this: if antibiotics really worked for chronic Lyme, people wouldn’t be searching for other solutions. But people are scouring the Internet every day, by the thousands, for solutions to chronic Lyme disease that actually work. 

Note: The primary situation where antibiotics have proven value is in early treatment of infections with more virulent tick-borne microbes such as Rickettsia (the cause of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever), Ehrlichia, Anaplasia, and in some cases, Babesia. These microbes typically present with high fever and severe symptoms during acute infection. Being more virulent, they typically respond better to antibiotic therapy and generally, 1-2 months of antibiotics is curative if infections are caught early.
 

Desperate for Solutions

After realizing that oral antibiotics weren’t a solution for me, my faith in the medical system diminished. My medical colleagues didn’t seem to understand Lyme disease or have much interest in treating it. Other than prescriptions medications for treating symptoms, they had little to offer.

I became desperate to find something… anything that would relieve my misery. 

I searched the Internet and read every book available about Lyme disease. I was aware of “Lyme Docs” who promoted prolonged use of IV antibiotics, but I couldn’t get comfortable with the idea. I knew enough about synthetic antibiotics to be gravely concerned about what it would do to intestinal flora and immune functions after several months of treatment (either IV or oral). 

Anyway, I really didn’t have the luxury to choose; my new medical practice kept me location ally confined and financially restricted. I would have to find an option that came to my doorstep.

There were a lot of options to choose from. Ever since people have been aware of Lyme disease, they’ve been throwing everything imaginable at it — from “ray beam” energy generated by Rife machines to drinking turpentine — all with the hope of killing the microbe. 

I created a list of all potential solutions and prioritized according to cost, potential for toxicity, and evidence of benefit. Things that were very costly or carried a high potential for harm were kept at the bottom of the list. 

At one point, I actually considered buying a Rife machine. The potential for harm seemed very low, but I couldn’t find any scientific evidence that the technology worked or that anyone had actually been cured. Paying $2,000-$4,000 for a machine that may or may not do anything was a risk I couldn’t afford to take.

Natural herbal therapy was definitely on my list; I had a longstanding interest in herbal therapy. But my medical background made me skeptical. How could anything natural and non-toxic actually get rid of something like Lyme disease? 

It was about that time that I came across Stephen Buhner’s book, Healing Lyme. In Healing Lyme, Buhner provided a better explanation of Lyme disease than any I had read. He also presented compelling evidence for treating Lyme disease using herbs with antimicrobial properties (used with or without antibiotics). His approach was logical and based on sound scientific evidence.

I was intrigued. Simple, nontoxic, cost-effective…and I could have it delivered to my doorstep. Why not give it a try?
 

A Turning Point

The only drawback was the complexity of the protocol. It required purchasing multiple ingredients from different sources and taking 3-5 capsules of each ingredient three times a day. Keeping up with it all was a challenge. 

I wanted to give the protocol full opportunity to work, however, so I made a concerted effort to follow it to the letter.

And… it started working.

The intestinal side effects that I experienced from taking antibiotics never happened. Within weeks, the misery started to ease; the pain in my joints and muscles became tolerable and my chest pain started to dissipate.

The Buhner protocol gave me a new lease on life, but I was determined to go further. As my health continued to improve, I immersed myself in the study of herbal therapy. I studied herbal traditions from different cultures, as well as the accumulated science and research available. Through this process, I discovered additional herbs with potent healing properties and added them to my herbal regimen. 

The more I studied, the more it became apparent that herbal therapy was a perfect fit for suppressing the stealthy microbes associated with chronic Lyme disease.
 

7 Reasons to Choose Herbs:

#1. Herbs provide a wide spectrum of antimicrobial properties

Plants have to deal with a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, just like any other living creature. Not having an immune system, plants deal with the problem by producing sophisticated spectrum of biochemical substances. Instead of one chemical, like an antibiotic, a medicinal herb contains hundreds of chemicals that suppress microbes in different ways; therefore resistance is almost unheard of, even with very long term use. Some herbs provide more potent antimicrobial properties than others. While herbs would never be a good choice for treating a life-threatening illness like pneumonia, they are perfect for suppressing stealth microbes associated with chronic illness. 

#2. Using multiple herbs together is synergistic

Different herbs offer a slightly different range of benefits, therefore multiple herbs can be used together to cover for all possible stealth microbes involved. In fact, this is the preferred way of doing herbal therapy (a concept called “synergy”). This provides for a wide spectrum of activity against a wide range of microbial threats. You can think of it as an orchestra of healing — the sum of multiple herbs is more powerful than each herb individually. 

#3. Herbs are inherently safe*

Over the millennia, humans naturally selected certain plant substances for use as medicines. These plants, now known as medicinal herbs, have chemistry that meshes well with human biochemistry. Not surprisingly, medicinal herbs are well tolerated by most people and can be safely used for extended periods of time. 

*Please consult with a qualified healthcare provider before beginning a new herbal therapy program. Herbal therapy may not be right for you if you have certain health conditions, are on medications, or are pregnant or breastfeeding. 

#4. Herbs enhance immune functions

Herbs reduce inflammatory messengers (called cytokines) generated by the microbes, shift the balance of the immune system away from inflammatory processes, and restore the ability of the immune system to function normally. These balanced elements are some of the essential keys to getting (and remaining) well. 

#5. Herbs support a balanced microbiome*

Plants have to deal with the same friend-versus-foe microbe problem that we do. The sophisticated spectrum of biochemical substances present in herbs support the normal balance of microbes of the body (microbiome), while offering resistance to potential threats at the same time. This unique feature of plant medicines works quite differently than synthetic antibiotics. 

#6. Herbs help the body deal with biofilms and cyst forms*

The immune system of the body is well equipped to deal with both biofilms and bacterial cyst forms. These bacterial survival strategies only become a problem when immune function is disrupted. By protecting and supporting normal immune function, herbal and natural therapies may enhance the ability to slowly etch away at any biofilms present and mop up bacterial cyst forms. 

#7. Herbs provide a wide spectrum of other benefits*

Herbs protect organ systems in the body, including cardiovascular, liver, and nerve functions. Herbs balance hormone systems, especially adrenal hormones, and protect cellular function. Herbs are anti-fatigue and improve stress tolerance. No drug on earth can provide the range of benefits present in medicinal herbs! 

*Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Creating the Perfect Environment for Healing

More than anything else, chronic Lyme disease is a breakdown of the body’s ability to fight off everyday threats and heal itself. It isn’t as much the microbes themselves as it is that the microbes are no longer constrained by a strong immune system. 

I had likely harbored Borrelia and other stealth microbes long before I got sick — everyone harbors some stealth microbes in the grand mix of their microbiome. For me, years of rigorous night call, eating on the run, and other bad health habits weakened my immune system enough to allow the microbes to flourish. 

Creating a healing environment within my body was essential for my recovery. Though herbs were essential for my recovery, I recognized that I also had to curb the habits that contributed to my immune dysfunction in the first place. 

Even before starting herbal therapy, I had given up night call by necessity. Adequate restorative sleep is essential for overcoming any chronic illness. Sleep was so disrupted, however, that it took a lot of effort for me to restore normal sleep.

Poor eating habits and antibiotics had made a mess out of my intestinal tract. I also knew that I needed to make some drastic changes to my diet. Admittedly, it was a challenge at first—I grew up in middle of the fast-food generation. But with time, eating healthy became the new norm. With a cleaner diet, all the digestive issues cleared, including leaky gut.

Stress didn’t go away. In fact, the process of changing my life added new stress, but I learned how to manage stress on the fly. I took control of my life. Being proactive about your own situation is essential for success.
 

Continued; A Holistic Path to Recovery

  

A Holistic Path to Recovery

Through my quest to find solutions for chronic Lyme disease, I found it useful to divide therapies into three categories:
   1. Restorative Therapy
   2. Symptomatic Therapy
   3. Heroic Therapy

Restorative Therapy

Everything I’ve discussed so far I classify as Restorative Therapy. It’s the foundation for getting well. Restorative Therapy focuses on optimizing immune function and restoring homeostasis (natural balance in hormone and healing systems in the body), as well as killing or suppressing microbes. Herbs are the cornerstone of Restorative Therapy.

Healing takes time, however, and pronounced symptoms can be a real impediment to progress. Symptoms of pain and poor sleep are especially aggravating. In the short term, treating symptoms directly until healing occurs can have value. 

Symptomatic Therapy

Symptomatic Therapies, as you might expect, are therapies that are specifically directed at controlling symptoms. Sometimes treating specific symptoms directly and aggressively can expedite recovery. It mostly comes in the form of drugs (prescribed by a primary care provider), but there are some natural and alternative options that fit into this category. 

The benefits of symptomatic therapies are generally limited to acute relief of symptoms. The contribution to healing and wellness is generally minimal. Suppression of symptoms is transient and only lasts as long as the therapy is administered. 

Heroic Therapy

In chronic Lyme disease, Heroic Therapies are mostly focused on aggressively killing microbes. Heroic therapies commonly used in Lyme disease include synthetic antibiotics, steroids, and anti-inflammatory drugs of various types. Alternative forms of heroic therapies use oxidation, electricity, and various types of radiation. This strategy is always passive — you go to health care provider and have something done to you. It puts someone else in control of your recovery.

Use of heroic therapies is limited by the incidence of side effects and the potential for disrupting systems in the body even further — generally the more potent a heroic therapy is, the greater the potential for harm. 

Though there is a place for each type of therapy, that place must be kept in perspective — every person’s pathway and needs are slightly different. The conventional medical approach of relying almost exclusively on heroic and symptoms therapies rarely results in wellness.

A holistic approach to recovery uses restorative therapies as a foundation, symptomatic therapies in early stages as necessary, and heroic therapies only when specific indications are present. When Restorative Therapy is your foundation, if heroic therapy of some type ends up being necessary, lower doses of shorter duration are generally adequate. This greatly reduces the potential for toxicity. 

People who try to get well using heroic and symptomatic therapies alone often fail. They bounce from one heroic option to the next, never achieving a goal of true wellness. 

In contrast, people who make the effort to build a solid restorative foundation have high probability of achieving wellness and enjoying normal life!
 

Simplifying The Process For Others

Once I got my health back, I wanted to help others do the same. To do so, I had to simplify the process. What had taken me years of effort and research to figure out needed to be boiled down into an easy protocol.

The first step was simplifying the process of taking the herbs. My interest in herbal medicine extended to the herbal industry itself. I had learned where to get the best quality herbal extracts, how to properly evaluate the quality of herbal extracts, and the best place to have the extracts encapsulated and bottled.

My daughter, who witnessed firsthand how herbs had helped me, came on board to manage the business. Our intent was creating the best possible herbal supplements for the money.

The guiding principles for creating effective supplements were:

  • Purity      — highest quality ingredients are essential for maximum benefits
  • Potency      — use of modern herbal extracts concentrate medicinal benefits
  • Synergy      — combining herbs with different properties to potentiate the value of      each individual herb

I condensed my entire natural protocol for overcoming chronic Lyme into four primary formulas. These four formulas contain the top 50 ingredients that I’ve researched for strengthening the immune system. The daily regimen is simple: 3 capsules of each formula twice daily.
 

Dr. Rawls’ Herbal Blends

Herbal Formula #1: Antimicrobial Support

This synergistic blend provides the core herbs from the Buhner protocol, including Japanese knotweed (trans-resveratrol), andrographis, cat’s claw, and sarsaparilla, along with stabilized aicen from garlic to extend coverage against protozoa, viruses, and yeast. 

Herbal Formula #2: Immunomodulation, Symptom Reduction

Rishi mushroom and cordyceps in this formula reduce inflammatory messengers (cytokines) generated by the microbes and normalize immune functions. Chinese skullcap, which provides activity against Mycoplasma and viruses, and rheumannia, which suppresses autoimmunity, are also key ingredients in the formula (initially this formula contained eleuthero, but it was too stimulating for some people with chronic illness). 

Herbal Formula #3: Cellular Support, Optimal Detoxification

The natural ingredients in this formula, including glutathione and NAC, in this supplement are designed to optimize detoxification and counter damage caused by free radicals at a tissue level and inside cells. This is essential for restoring energy to the body at a cellular level. These same ingredients protect tissues from toxins and help remove toxins, including heavy metals from tissues. 

Herbal Formula #4: Daily Nutrients, Cardiovascular Function

This formula provides essential vitamins and nutrients in activated form. This is very important for people with methylation mutations (MTHFR), who need activated B vitamins (5-methyltetrahydrofolate, pyridoxal-5-phosphate, methyl cobalamin) to get well. The formula also contains herbal ingredients, including hawthorn, French maritime pine bark, and resveratrol, for optimizing blood flow and supporting cardiovascular function. Optimal tissue protection is provided by milk thistle for liver support and a variety of herbal antioxidants. 

Building A Solid Restorative Foundation

The supplements are essential; it’s hard to get well without them, but recovery is a process. To guide people through the process, I created an email course. Over 6 months, participants receive brief emails several times a week. 

The emails are a blend of inspirational, instructional, and educational content. They are designed to answer almost any question that might come up in a timely fashion. With each day that passes, the emails step you through the process of getting your life back 

A guide for restoring normal intestinal function and embracing clean eating is also included. Learn more about Dr. Rawls’ herbal protocol »
 

Life As It Should Be

Although I do things differently now, I’ve come to really enjoy a healthful lifestyle. The trade-offs are worth it—things seem to improve for me every year.

My joints are in great shape. My energy levels are sustained throughout the day and I’m as active as I want to be.

As for the borrelia microbe, I may still harbor it. Whether anyone ever gets rid of it is a complete unknown. But the most important thing is that I’m living a normal life, free of symptoms and also free of many of the effects of aging that most people of my age experience.

Over the years, I’ve compiled everything I’ve learned into a book called Unlocking Lyme to help guide the way for others.

Ready to Jumpstart Your Recovery?

 

REFERENCES:
1. Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, et al. Randomized Trial of Longer-Term Therapy for Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(13):1209-1220.
2. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Vancova M, et al. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microb Infect. 2016;22(3):267. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
3. Perez-Cobas AE, Gosalbes MJ, Friedrichs A, et al. Gut microbiota disturbance during antibiotic therapy, a multi-omic approach. Gut. 2013;62(11):1591-1601. Epub 2012 Dec 12.
4. Morgun A, Dzutsev A, Dong X, et al. Uncovering effects of antibiotics on the host and microbiota using transkingdom gene networks. Gut. 2015;64(11):1732-1742. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
5. Kalghatgi S, Spina CS, Costello JC, et al. Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Mammalian cells. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5(192):192ra85.
6. Macfarlane S, Woodmansey EJ, Macfarlane GT. Colonization of mucin by human intestinal bacteria and establishment of biofilm communities in a two-stage continuous culture system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71(11):7483-7492.
7. Macfarlane S, Dillon JF. Microbial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102(5):1187-1196.
8. Macfarlane S, Bahrami B, Macfarlane GT. Mucosal biofilm communities in the human intestinal tract. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2011;75:111-143. 

By admin| January 1st, 2017| 

Dr. Rawls’ Complete Guide to Lyme Disease and Coinfection Tests


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

After graduating from medical school, Dr. Bill Rawls practiced conventional medicine for 15 years. However, when Lyme disease and fibromyalgia disrupted his career at age 45, he was forced into the world of herbal and alternative medicine. He has since restored his health.

IT IS THE OPINON OF ALBERT FISSETTE AT LIGHT THERAPY SERVICES THAT YOU CAN BE SUCESSFUL IN YOUR FIGHT AGAINEST LYME JUST BY USING HERBS AND THE MICROBS OWN FREQUENCYS TO FIGHT AND KILL THEM WITHOUT DRUGS. Make a free appointment today, Call 518-526-5012 Now. My daughter fought LYME for more than a year, now you don’t have to. The choice is yours.

You must follow a schedule of detoxing your bladder, liver, lungs, lymph and blood systems too. All of the dead material must go. Keep in mind that this is not a one day event. This regiment can take very long as you will be destroying microbes with herbs daily until your body is clean. 

Why Lyme Disease Ticks Thrive in the North

Researchers from the University of Rhode Island, in Kingston, have studied the rapid increase in Lyme disease in the northern U.S. Only 11 cases of the disease, which annually impacts about 300,000 Americans, were reported in 2015 in Alabama, a state of approximately 5 million residents. Meanwhile, there were 491 confirmed cases in Vermont, with a population of less than 700,000.

The researchers studied the life cycle, metabolism and behavior of black-legged ticks, collecting larvae from several eastern areas. They discovered that ticks live longer in cooler temperatures with higher levels of humidity, making northeastern climates ideal, because longer lives mean increased chance of contact. Southern ticks stay hidden underfoot in layers of leaves to stay cool and damp, making them less likely to find a human host than their northern counterparts, which reside on leaves and trees. 

“There has been a lot of research aimed at finding out what makes black-legged ticks more efficient hosts for Lyme disease in the north than in the south,” explains Roger LeBrun, an entomology professor at the University of Rhode Island and co-author of the study. “People have looked at everything from the effects of temperature on tick life cycles to the types of animals the ticks feed on. Probably all of these factors play roles, but our results suggest that evolutionary pressure to conserve moisture by staying under the leaf litter surface is a critical factor.”

LYME SCI: Lyme has been found in all 50 states and is on the rise


Quest Diagnostics has released its findings from over six million Lyme disease lab tests taken over the last seven years.

Quest’s report says Lyme has been detected in all 50 states and the District of Columbia—and that the number of cases continues to rise nationwide.

This report provides the first national analysis of Lyme disease based on laboratory data. (See here for similar data based on insurance claims.)

Quest Reports Lyme Disease Spike 

According to Quest’s report, 60% of Lyme disease cases occur in the Northeastern United States, with a decided spike in the last few years.

Pennsylvania registered the most positive test results in the nation, with 10,001 cases in 2017, followed by six New England states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont) reporting another 11,549 cases combined.

More surprising to me was the exponential increase in the number of positive test results found in California and Florida, two states often dismissed by the CDC as not having very much Lyme disease.

What’s most disturbing about these numbers is the huge discrepancy between the positive test results and the number of cases reported by the CDC.

Comparing Quest and CDC Lyme Disease Map

First, let’s look at the big picture by comparing the CDC map (each dot represents one CDC positive case), and the Quest map showing the number of positive test results. Note, the Northeast looks pretty similar between the two maps, but what is going on in the South and West? Why such glaring discrepancy?


Comparing Quest’s numbers to the latest CDC Lyme Disease data. 

In 2015, Quest found 164 cases of Lyme disease in California—while the CDC acknowledged only 83 cases. (California has mandatory lab reporting of Lyme disease. So, those cases from Quest were reported to state officials—and then what happened?)

That same year, Quest found 283 cases in Florida while the CDC reported 116.

In 2016, Quest again shows twice the CDC totals for California, but an even bigger gap emerges in Florida, with Quest reporting three times as many as the CDC. See below:



And look at 2017! According to Quest, California’s positive Lyme tests increased 195% over the two-year period from 2015 to 2017. Florida showed a 77% increase over the same time span. (CDC figures for 2017 are not yet available.)

And, keep in mind, Quest is only one of many laboratories in the U.S. What about positive Lyme tests from other labs? IS THIS ANOTHER COVER UP?

Ticks are spreading 

LymeDisease.org’s own research project, MyLymeData, has also detected discrepancies between the CDC-reported cases and the number of patients with positive tests for Lyme in the South and West. [See LYMEPOLICYWONK: Why Doesn’t the CDC Count Lyme Disease Cases in the South and the West? Everybody Else Does.]

The spread of Lyme disease makes sense with the latest NIH report showing the Ixodes scapularis tick, the primary source of Lyme disease, being found in nearly 50 percent more U.S. counties in 2015 than was detected in 1996.

Further confirming the increasing spread, a recent citizen science study also found Ixodes scapularis ticks in 83 counties (in 24 states) where these ticks had not been previously recorded. But why?

Dr. Harvey Kauffman, of Quest Diagnostics, says, “Our data show that positive results for Lyme are both increasing in number and occurring in geographic areas not historically associated with the disease. We hypothesize that these significant rates of increase may reinforce other research suggesting changing climate conditions that allow ticks to live longer and in more regions may factor into disease risk.”

It’s past time to take ticks seriously “IT’S an Epidemic PEOPLE”

Lyme disease is only one of 16 tick-borne disease found within the United States. How many other illnesses are being undiagnosed and/or underreported? Is there also a 10-fold difference in reporting of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, rickettsiosis and other tick-borne pathogens, including viruses?

The CDC recently acknowledged that 75% of all reported vector-borne illnesses come from ticks, and of those, most are cases of Lyme disease

Underreporting of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases is a huge problem. It’s time to fix it.

LymeSci is written by Lonnie Marcum, a Licensed Physical Therapist and mother of a daughter with Lyme. Follow her on Twitter: >@LonnieRhea  Email her at: lmarcum@lymedisease.org .

Reference:

New Quest Diagnostics Data Shows Lyme Disease Prevalence Increasing and is Now Present in New U.S. States 

Related posts:

  1. 42,743 times 10 equals 427,430 cases of Lyme disease in      US 
  2. As the Climate Warms- Lyme Disease is Predicted to Rise      
  3. Beyond Lyme: New Tick-Borne Diseases On The Rise In      U.S. 
  4. A New Asian Tick is Invading Parts of the United States      

Any insect that jumps or flys and sucks your blood leaving behind microbes that infect your body and diminishes your health to the point where you cannot think, work and can makes you a burden on society or even kills you has to go. We are at the top of the food chain and must stay there in order to survive as earthlings.

PLUM ISLAND

  

The government created Lyme as a germ warfare project on Plum Island.  


 Plum Island, Lyme Disease And Operation Paperclip, A Deadly Triangle
From Patricia Doyle, PhD
dr_p_doyle@hotmail.com
   

Hello, Jeff - This is an excellent   historical documentation of Plum Island's history even before it became the   USDA Plum Island. The history goes back to operation paperclip and to PROVEN   tick research on Plum Island dating back to the 1950s. Plum Island also   worked with lone star ticks. ...I wondered how lone star ticks from Texas   would get to my backyard in NY. The ticks had some help, i.e. germ   scientists...and Plum Island. 

Patricia Doyle 

FTR#480
  http://www.spitfirelist.com/f480.html 

Plum Island, Lyme Disease and the   Erich Traub File
  (One 30-minute segment)
  (Sources are noted in parentheses.)
  (Recorded on 10/3/2004.) 

Note: FTR#'s 260-316, 317, 324,   FTR#325 and succeeding programs are streaming on Real Audio at   www.wfmu.org/daveemory. FTR#'s 01-270, 316-324 are available for download   only, also on Real Audio, on their Archive Page.) 

Note: Users of this web site are   emphatically encouraged to create a word document out of the program   descriptions and do a "search" on individual subjects in order to   more completely reference those items. 

Note: Users of this web site (as   well as the two WFMU web addresses noted above) are emphatically encouraged   to use the internet to disseminate as much of the audio and printed material   as possible. It is all FREE! 

Note: It is recommended that   listeners print the program descriptions for optimum readability. It is   emphatically encouraged that listeners use the printed files on the Spitfire   web site and the audio files on the WFMU web sites to create their own   research/teaching databases. 

Summary of FTR#480-(Note: The   massive volume of "For The Record" programs about 9/11 and related   topics is summarized and analyzed in the periodically-updated description for   FTR#391. FTR#'s 454, 455, 456 are compilations of much of the key   documentation culled from Mr. Emory's investigation into 9/11. Along with   FTR#391, they should give listeners/readers a substantive grasp of this   momentous event. It is recommended that listeners use this description and   e-mail it to others. Also: The book "Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile"   is available at About Paul Manning. In addition, the professional history of   the late Paul Manning, the book's author, is presented in the description   About Paul Manning. This enables listeners to acquaint others with Mr.   Manning's journalistic credentials. Key material from the book is synopsized   in an extended description for FTR#305. Understanding the Bormann   organization is essential to comprehending the concept of "the   Underground Reich." Note also that U.S. Government documents proving   Prescott Bush Sr.'s Money-Laundering on behalf of the Third Reich before and   after World War II are available at a linked website, along with commentary   by John Buchanan, who located the documentation. This material is discussed   in FTR#435. The website containing the documents is   www.debatecomics.org/BushFamilyFortune/ .) In the mid-1970's Lyme Disease   broke out in Connecticut and it has since spread through much of the United   States. This program examines the possibility that Lyme Disease may have   spread as a result of clandestine experimentation on biological warfare on   Plum Island-a Department of Agriculture facility that doubled as an Army BW   research facility. Dedicated to the study of animal diseases, Plum Island   appears to have been the site of experiments with disease-infected ticks   conducted by Nazi scientists brought into the United States under Project   Paperclip. One of the Nazi scientists who appears to have been involved with   Plum Island was Dr. Erich Traub, who was in charge of the Third Reich's   virological and bacteriological warfare program in World War II. Was Traub   involved with experiments that led to the spread of Lyme Disease? 

Program Highlights Include:   Examination of Traub's studies in the US prior to World War II; Traub's   pro-Nazi activities inside the US before the war; John Loftus' discovery of   references in the National Archives to Nazi scientists experimenting with   diseased ticks on Plum Island; Lyme Disease activist Steven Nostrum's   discovery of Loftus' findings and his work investigating Plum Island; Details   of Traub's involvement with Plum Island; files about Tick Research and Erich   Traub that have been purged; Scientific American's dismissal of the Plum   Island/Traub/Paperclip/Lyme Disease link; the Nazi heritage of the Von   Holtzbrinck firm-which owns Scientific American; Plum Island experimentation   with the disease-carrying "Lone Star Tick"; the fact that the Lone   Star Tick-native to Texas-has somehow spread to New York, New Jersey and   Connecticut! 

1. In order to understand how   Erich Traub came to the United States, it is important to understand Project   PAPERCLIP. The program begins with a synoptic account of that project and how   its prosecution led to Traub's entry to the United States and his involvement   with Plum Island: "Nearing the end of World War II, the United States   and the Soviet Union raced to recruit German scientists for postwar purposes.   Under a top-secret program code-named Project PAPERCLIP, the U.S. military   pursued Nazi scientific talent 'like forbidden fruit,' bringing them to   America under employment contracts and offering them full U.S. citizenship.   The recruits were supposed to be nominal participants in Nazi activities. But   the zealous military recruited more than two thousand scientists, many of   whom had dark Nazi party pasts." (Lab 257: the Disturbing Story of the   Government's Secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory; by Michael Christopher   Carroll; Copyright 2004 by Michael Christopher Carroll; HarperCollins [HC];   p. 7.) 

2. "American scientists   viewed these Germans as peers, and quickly forgot they were on opposite sides   of a ghastly global war in which millions perished. Fearing brutal   retaliation from the Soviets for the Nazis' vicious treatment of them, some   scientists cooperated with the Americans to earn amnesty. Others played the   two nations off each other to get the best financial deal in exchange for   their services. Dr. Erich Traub was troubling on the Soviet side of the Iron   Curtain after the war, and ordered to research germ warfare viruses for the   Russians. He pulled off a daring escape with his family to West Berlin in   1949. Applying for Project Paperclip employment, Traub affirmed he wanted to   'do scientific work in the U.S.A., become an American citizen, and be   protected from Russian reprisals.'" (Idem.) 

3. The program sets forth Traub's   work for the Third Reich: "As lab chief of Insel Riems-a secret Nazi   biological warfare laboratory on a crescent-shaped island nestled in the   Baltic Sea-Traub worked directly for Adolf Hitler's second-in-charge, SS   Reichsfuehrer Heinrich Himmler, on live germ trials. . . ." (Ibid.; pp.   7-8.) 

4. Traub had studied in the United   States before the war (at the Rockefeller Institute) and had been involved in   Nazi activities inside the U.S. prior to 1939 (the outbreak of World War II).   " . . . Traub also listed his 1930's membership in Amerika-Deutscher   Volksbund, a German-American 'club' also known as Camp Sigfriend. Just thirty   miles west of Plum Island in Yaphank, Long Island, Camp Sigfried was the   national headquarters of the American Nazi movement. . . .Ironically, Traub   spent the prewar period of his scientific career on a fellowship at the   Rockefeller Institute in Princeton, New Jersey, perfecting his skills in   viruses and bacteria under the tutelage of American experts before returning   to Nazi Germany on the eve of war. Despite Traub's troubling war record, the   U.S. Navy recruited him for its scientific designs, and stationed him at the   Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland." (Ibid.; p. 8.) 

5. Nominally under the   jurisdiction of the USDA (Department of Agriculture), Plum Island was also   used for military biological warfare research on animal diseases. In that   regard, it was involved with Fort Dietrick, the Army's top chemical and   biological warfare facility. Note that Traub was at the foundation of the   Plum Island/biological warfare nexus. "Just months into his PAPERCLIP   contract, the germ warriors of Fort Detrick, the Army's biological warfare   headquarters, in Frederick, Maryland, and CIA operatives invited Traub in for   a talk, later reported in a declassified top-secret summary: Dr. Traub is a   noted authority on viruses and diseases in Germany and Europe. This   interrogation revealed much information of value to the animal disease   program from a Biological Warfare point of view. Dr. Traub discussed work   done at a German animal disease station during World War II and subsequent to   the war when the station was under Russian control.' Traub's detailed   explanation of the secret operation on Insel Riems, and his activities there   during the war and for the Soviets, laid the ground work for Fort Detrick's   offshore germ warfare animal diseased lab on Plum Island. Traub was a   founding father. . . ." (Ibid.; pp. 8-9.) 

6. It is interesting to note that   the Third Reich's biological warfare program had the cover name of   "Cancer Research Program." (In RFA#16-available from Spitfire-as   well as FTR#'s 16, 73, we look at the National Cancer Institute's Special   Viral Cancer Research Program and the evidence suggesting that the project   was actually a front for the continuation of biological warfare research.   Erich Traub appears to have been involved with the projects related to the   SVCRP.) " . . . Everybody seemed willing to forget about Erich Traub's   dirty past-that he played a crucial role in the Nazis' 'Cancer Research   Program,' the cover name for their biological warfare program, and that he   worked directly under SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler. They seemed willing   to overlook that Traub in the 1930's faithfully attended Camp Sigfried. In   fact, the USDA liked him so much, it glossed over his dubious past and   offered him the top scientist job at the new Plum Island Laboratory-not once,   but twice. Just months after the 1952 public hearings on selecting Plum   Island, Doc Shahan dialed Dr. Traub at the naval laboratory to discuss plans   for establishing the germ laboratory and a position on Plum Island."   (Ibid.; p. 10.) 

7. More about how Traub came to be   in a significant position at Plum Island. "Six years later-and only two   years after Traub squirmed in his seat at the Plum Island dedication   ceremonies-senior scientist Dr. Jacob Traum retired. The USDA needed someone   of 'outstanding caliber, with a long established reputation, internationally   as well as nationally,' to fill Dr. Traum's shoes. But somehow it couldn't   find a suitable American. 'As a last resort it is now proposed that a   foreigner be employed.' The aggies' choice? Erich Traub, who was in their   view 'the most desirable candidate from any source.' The 1958 secret USDA   memorandum 'Justification for Employment of Dr. Erich Traub' conveniently   omitted his World War II activities; but it did emphasize that 'his originality,   scientific abilities, and general competence as an investigator' were   developed at the Rockefeller Institute in New Jersey in the 1930's."   (Idem.) 

8. The push to employ Traub as the   director of Plum Island involved professional recommendations that omitted   his work for the Third Reich: "The letters supporting Traub to lead Plum   Island came in from fellow Plum Island founders. 'I hope that every effort   will be made to get him. He has had long and productive experience in both   prewar and postwar Germany,' said Dr. William Hagan, dean of the Cornell   University veterinary school, carefully dispensing with his wartime   activities. The final word came from his dear American friend and old   Rockefeller Institute boss Dr. Richard Shope, who described Traub as   'careful, skill, productive and very original' and 'one of this world's most   outstanding virologists.' Shope's sole reference to Traub at war: 'During the   war he was in Germany serving in the German Army.'" (Idem.) 

9. Traub declined the offer to lead   the lab. There is considerable evidence that he was involved with biological   warfare research at Plum Island. "Declining the USDA's offer, Traub   continued his directorship of the Tubingen laboratory in West Germany, though   he visited Plum Island frequently. In 1960, he was forced to resign as   Tubingen's director under a dark cloud of financial embezzlement. Traub   continued sporadic lab research for another three years, and then left   Tubingen for good--a scandalous end to a checkered career. In the late 1970's,   the esteemed virologist Dr. Robert Shope, on business in Munich, paid his   father Richard's old Rockefeller Institute disciple a visit. The germ warrior   had been in early retirement for about a decade by then. 'I had dinner with   Traub one day-out of old time's sake-and he was a pretty defeated man by   then.' On May 18, 1985, the Nazis' virus warrior Dr. Erich Traub died   unexpectedly in his sleep in West Germany. He was seventy-eight years   old." (Ibid.; pp. 10-11.) 

10. "A biological warfare   mercenary who worked under three flags-Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and   the UnitedStates-Traub was never investigated for war crimes. He escaped any   inquiry into his wartime past. The full extent of his sordid endeavors went   with him to his grave. While America brought a handful of Nazi war criminals   to justice, it safeguarded many others in exchange for verses to the new   state religion-modern science and espionage. Records detailing a fraction of   Eric Traub's activities are now available to the public, but most are   withheld by Army intelligence and the CIA on grounds of national security.   But there's enough of a glimpse to draw quite a sketch." (Ibid.; p. 11.) 

11. An important chapter in the   story of how the inquiry into the possible link between Plum Island, Erich   Traub's work on behalf of the US and the spread of Lyme Disease concerns the   work of former Justice Department prosecutor John Loftus. In his book The   Belarus Secret, Loftus referred to work done on Plum Island in the early   1950's in which Nazi scientists were experimenting on diseased ticks. Might   that have referred to Traub?! " . . . Attorney John Loftus was hired in   1979 by the Office of Special Investigations, a unit set up by the Justice   Department to expose Nazi war crimes and unearth Nazis hiding in the United   States. Given top-secret clearance to review files that had been sealed for   thirty-five years, Loftus found a treasure trove of information on America's   postwar Nazi recruiting. In 1982, publicly challenging the government's   complacency with the wrongdoing, he told 60 minutes that top Nazi officers   had been protected and harbored in America by the CIA and the State   Department. 'They got the Emmy Award,' Loftus wrote. 'My family got the death   threats.'" (Ibid.; p. 13.) 

12. "Old spies reached out to   him after the publication of his book, The Belarus Secret, encouraged that   he-unlike other authors-submitted his manuscript to the government, agreeing   to censor portions to protect national security. The spooks gave him copies   of secret documents and told him stories of clandestine operations. From   these leads, Loftus ferreted out the dubious Nazi past of Austrian president   and U.N. secretary general Kurt Waldheim. Loftus revealed that during World   War II, Waldheim had been an officer in a German Army unit that committed   atrocities in Yugoslavia. A disgraced Kurt Waldheim faded from the   international scene soon thereafter." (Idem.) 

13. "In the preface of The   Belarus Secret, Loftus laid out a striking piece of information gleaned from   his spy network: 'Even more disturbing are the records of the Nazi germ   warfare scientists who came to America. They experimented with poison ticks   dropped from planes to spread rare diseases. I have received some information   suggesting that the U.S. tested some of these poison ticks on the Plum Island   artillery range off the coast of Connecticut during the early 1950's. . .   .Most of the germ warfare records have been shredded, but there is a top   secret U.S. document confirming that 'clandestine attacks on crops and   animals' took place at this time." (Idem.) 

14. More pieces of evidence on the   tantalizing trail of evidence pointing to a possible Plum Island/Traub/Lyme   disease link: "Erich Traub had been working for the American biological   warfare program from his 1949 Soviet escape until 1953. We know he consulted   with Fort Dietrick scientists and CIA operatives; that he worked for the USDA   for a brief stint; and that he spoke regularly with Plum Island director Doc   Shahan in 1952. Traub can be physically placed on Plum Island at least three   times-on dedication day in 1956 and two visits, once in 1957 and again in the   spring of 1958. Shahan, who enforced an ultrastrict policy against outside   visitors, each time received special clearance from the State Department to   allow Traub on Plum Island soil." (Ibid.; p. 14.) 

15. If in fact Traub was involved   with research on Plum Island, this development would have been consistent   with programs being conducted at that time involving experimentation on   unwitting American citizens with biological and chemical warfare research   agents: "Research unearthed three USDA files from the vault of the   National Archives-two were labeled TICK RESEARCH and a third E.TRAUB. All   three folders were empty. The caked-on dust confirms the file boxes hadn't   been open since the moment before they were taped shut in the 1950's.   Preposterous as it sounds, clandestine outdoor germ warfare trials were   almost routine during this period. In 1952, the Joint Chiefs of Staff called   for a 'vigorous, well-planned, large-scale [biological warfare] test to the   secretary of defense later that year stated, 'Steps should be take to make   certain of adequate facilities are available, including those at Fort   Detrick, Dugway Proving Ground, Fort Terry (Plum Island) and an island field   testing area.' Was Plum Island the island field testing area? Indeed, when   the Army first scouted Plum Island for its Cold War designs, they charted   wind speeds and direction and found that, much to their liking, the   prevailing winds blew out to sea." (Idem.) 

16. "One of the participating   'interested agencies' was the USDA, which admittedly set up large plots of   land throughout the Midwest for airborne anticrop germ spray tests. Fort   Detrick's Special Operations Division ran 'vulnerability tests' in which   operatives walked around Washington, D.C., and San Francisco with suitcases   holding Serratia marcescens-a bacteria recommended to Fort Detrick by Traub's   nominal supervisor, Nazi germ czar and Nuremberg defendant Dr. Kurt Blome.   Tiny perforations allowed the germs' release so they could trace the flow of   the germs through airports and bus terminals. Shortly thereafter, eleven   elderly men and women checked into hospitals with never-before-seen Serratia   marcescens infections. One patient died. Decades later when the germ tests   were disclosed, the Army denied responsibility. . . . In the summer of 1966,   Special Operations men walked into three New York City subway stations and tossed   lightbulbs filled Bacillus subtilis, a benign bacteria, onto the tracks. The   subway trains pushed the germs through the entire system and theoretically   killed over a million passengers." (Idem.) 


Disclaimer Follows

      

      

Hello, Jeff - This is an excellent   historical documentation of Plum Island's history even before it became the   USDA Plum Island. The history goes back to operation paperclip and to PROVEN   tick research on Plum Island dating back to the 1950s. Plum Island also   worked with lone star ticks. ...I wondered how lone star ticks from Texas   would get to my backyard in NY. The ticks had some help, i.e. germ   scientists...and Plum Island. 

Patricia Doyle 

FTR#480
  http://www.spitfirelist.com/f480.html 

Plum Island, Lyme Disease and the   Erich Traub File
  (One 30-minute segment)
  (Sources are noted in parentheses.)
  (Recorded on 10/3/2004.) 

Note: FTR#'s 260-316, 317, 324,   FTR#325 and succeeding programs are streaming on Real Audio at   www.wfmu.org/daveemory. FTR#'s 01-270, 316-324 are available for download   only, also on Real Audio, on their Archive Page.) 

Note: Users of this web site are   emphatically encouraged to create a word document out of the program   descriptions and do a "search" on individual subjects in order to   more completely reference those items. 

Note: Users of this web site (as   well as the two WFMU web addresses noted above) are emphatically encouraged   to use the internet to disseminate as much of the audio and printed material   as possible. It is all FREE! 

Note: It is recommended that   listeners print the program descriptions for optimum readability. It is   emphatically encouraged that listeners use the printed files on the Spitfire   web site and the audio files on the WFMU web sites to create their own   research/teaching databases. 

Summary of FTR#480-(Note: The   massive volume of "For The Record" programs about 9/11 and related   topics is summarized and analyzed in the periodically-updated description for   FTR#391. FTR#'s 454, 455, 456 are compilations of much of the key   documentation culled from Mr. Emory's investigation into 9/11. Along with   FTR#391, they should give listeners/readers a substantive grasp of this   momentous event. It is recommended that listeners use this description and   e-mail it to others. Also: The book "Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile"   is available at About Paul Manning. In addition, the professional history of   the late Paul Manning, the book's author, is presented in the description   About Paul Manning. This enables listeners to acquaint others with Mr.   Manning's journalistic credentials. Key material from the book is synopsized   in an extended description for FTR#305. Understanding the Bormann   organization is essential to comprehending the concept of "the   Underground Reich." Note also that U.S. Government documents proving   Prescott Bush Sr.'s Money-Laundering on behalf of the Third Reich before and   after World War II are available at a linked website, along with commentary   by John Buchanan, who located the documentation. This material is discussed   in FTR#435. The website containing the documents is   www.debatecomics.org/BushFamilyFortune/ .) In the mid-1970's Lyme Disease   broke out in Connecticut and it has since spread through much of the United   States. This program examines the possibility that Lyme Disease may have   spread as a result of clandestine experimentation on biological warfare on   Plum Island-a Department of Agriculture facility that doubled as an Army BW   research facility. Dedicated to the study of animal diseases, Plum Island   appears to have been the site of experiments with disease-infected ticks   conducted by Nazi scientists brought into the United States under Project   Paperclip. One of the Nazi scientists who appears to have been involved with   Plum Island was Dr. Erich Traub, who was in charge of the Third Reich's   virological and bacteriological warfare program in World War II. Was Traub   involved with experiments that led to the spread of Lyme Disease? 

Program Highlights Include:   Examination of Traub's studies in the US prior to World War II; Traub's   pro-Nazi activities inside the US before the war; John Loftus' discovery of   references in the National Archives to Nazi scientists experimenting with   diseased ticks on Plum Island; Lyme Disease activist Steven Nostrum's   discovery of Loftus' findings and his work investigating Plum Island; Details   of Traub's involvement with Plum Island; files about Tick Research and Erich   Traub that have been purged; Scientific American's dismissal of the Plum   Island/Traub/Paperclip/Lyme Disease link; the Nazi heritage of the Von   Holtzbrinck firm-which owns Scientific American; Plum Island experimentation   with the disease-carrying "Lone Star Tick"; the fact that the Lone   Star Tick-native to Texas-has somehow spread to New York, New Jersey and   Connecticut! 

1. In order to understand how   Erich Traub came to the United States, it is important to understand Project   PAPERCLIP. The program begins with a synoptic account of that project and how   its prosecution led to Traub's entry to the United States and his involvement   with Plum Island: "Nearing the end of World War II, the United States   and the Soviet Union raced to recruit German scientists for postwar purposes.   Under a top-secret program code-named Project PAPERCLIP, the U.S. military   pursued Nazi scientific talent 'like forbidden fruit,' bringing them to   America under employment contracts and offering them full U.S. citizenship.   The recruits were supposed to be nominal participants in Nazi activities. But   the zealous military recruited more than two thousand scientists, many of   whom had dark Nazi party pasts." (Lab 257: the Disturbing Story of the   Government's Secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory; by Michael Christopher   Carroll; Copyright 2004 by Michael Christopher Carroll; HarperCollins [HC];   p. 7.) 

2. "American scientists   viewed these Germans as peers, and quickly forgot they were on opposite sides   of a ghastly global war in which millions perished. Fearing brutal   retaliation from the Soviets for the Nazis' vicious treatment of them, some   scientists cooperated with the Americans to earn amnesty. Others played the   two nations off each other to get the best financial deal in exchange for   their services. Dr. Erich Traub was troubling on the Soviet side of the Iron   Curtain after the war, and ordered to research germ warfare viruses for the   Russians. He pulled off a daring escape with his family to West Berlin in   1949. Applying for Project Paperclip employment, Traub affirmed he wanted to   'do scientific work in the U.S.A., become an American citizen, and be   protected from Russian reprisals.'" (Idem.) 

3. The program sets forth Traub's   work for the Third Reich: "As lab chief of Insel Riems-a secret Nazi   biological warfare laboratory on a crescent-shaped island nestled in the   Baltic Sea-Traub worked directly for Adolf Hitler's second-in-charge, SS   Reichsfuehrer Heinrich Himmler, on live germ trials. . . ." (Ibid.; pp.   7-8.) 

4. Traub had studied in the United   States before the war (at the Rockefeller Institute) and had been involved in   Nazi activities inside the U.S. prior to 1939 (the outbreak of World War II).   " . . . Traub also listed his 1930's membership in Amerika-Deutscher   Volksbund, a German-American 'club' also known as Camp Sigfriend. Just thirty   miles west of Plum Island in Yaphank, Long Island, Camp Sigfried was the   national headquarters of the American Nazi movement. . . .Ironically, Traub   spent the prewar period of his scientific career on a fellowship at the   Rockefeller Institute in Princeton, New Jersey, perfecting his skills in   viruses and bacteria under the tutelage of American experts before returning   to Nazi Germany on the eve of war. Despite Traub's troubling war record, the   U.S. Navy recruited him for its scientific designs, and stationed him at the   Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland." (Ibid.; p. 8.) 

5. Nominally under the   jurisdiction of the USDA (Department of Agriculture), Plum Island was also   used for military biological warfare research on animal diseases. In that   regard, it was involved with Fort Dietrick, the Army's top chemical and   biological warfare facility. Note that Traub was at the foundation of the   Plum Island/biological warfare nexus. "Just months into his PAPERCLIP   contract, the germ warriors of Fort Detrick, the Army's biological warfare   headquarters, in Frederick, Maryland, and CIA operatives invited Traub in for   a talk, later reported in a declassified top-secret summary: Dr. Traub is a   noted authority on viruses and diseases in Germany and Europe. This   interrogation revealed much information of value to the animal disease   program from a Biological Warfare point of view. Dr. Traub discussed work   done at a German animal disease station during World War II and subsequent to   the war when the station was under Russian control.' Traub's detailed   explanation of the secret operation on Insel Riems, and his activities there   during the war and for the Soviets, laid the ground work for Fort Detrick's   offshore germ warfare animal diseased lab on Plum Island. Traub was a   founding father. . . ." (Ibid.; pp. 8-9.) 

6. It is interesting to note that   the Third Reich's biological warfare program had the cover name of   "Cancer Research Program." (In RFA#16-available from Spitfire-as   well as FTR#'s 16, 73, we look at the National Cancer Institute's Special   Viral Cancer Research Program and the evidence suggesting that the project   was actually a front for the continuation of biological warfare research.   Erich Traub appears to have been involved with the projects related to the   SVCRP.) " . . . Everybody seemed willing to forget about Erich Traub's   dirty past-that he played a crucial role in the Nazis' 'Cancer Research   Program,' the cover name for their biological warfare program, and that he   worked directly under SS Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler. They seemed willing   to overlook that Traub in the 1930's faithfully attended Camp Sigfried. In   fact, the USDA liked him so much, it glossed over his dubious past and   offered him the top scientist job at the new Plum Island Laboratory-not once,   but twice. Just months after the 1952 public hearings on selecting Plum   Island, Doc Shahan dialed Dr. Traub at the naval laboratory to discuss plans   for establishing the germ laboratory and a position on Plum Island."   (Ibid.; p. 10.) 

7. More about how Traub came to be   in a significant position at Plum Island. "Six years later-and only two   years after Traub squirmed in his seat at the Plum Island dedication   ceremonies-senior scientist Dr. Jacob Traum retired. The USDA needed someone   of 'outstanding caliber, with a long established reputation, internationally   as well as nationally,' to fill Dr. Traum's shoes. But somehow it couldn't   find a suitable American. 'As a last resort it is now proposed that a   foreigner be employed.' The aggies' choice? Erich Traub, who was in their   view 'the most desirable candidate from any source.' The 1958 secret USDA   memorandum 'Justification for Employment of Dr. Erich Traub' conveniently   omitted his World War II activities; but it did emphasize that 'his originality,   scientific abilities, and general competence as an investigator' were   developed at the Rockefeller Institute in New Jersey in the 1930's."   (Idem.) 

8. The push to employ Traub as the   director of Plum Island involved professional recommendations that omitted   his work for the Third Reich: "The letters supporting Traub to lead Plum   Island came in from fellow Plum Island founders. 'I hope that every effort   will be made to get him. He has had long and productive experience in both   prewar and postwar Germany,' said Dr. William Hagan, dean of the Cornell   University veterinary school, carefully dispensing with his wartime   activities. The final word came from his dear American friend and old   Rockefeller Institute boss Dr. Richard Shope, who described Traub as   'careful, skill, productive and very original' and 'one of this world's most   outstanding virologists.' Shope's sole reference to Traub at war: 'During the   war he was in Germany serving in the German Army.'" (Idem.) 

9. Traub declined the offer to lead   the lab. There is considerable evidence that he was involved with biological   warfare research at Plum Island. "Declining the USDA's offer, Traub   continued his directorship of the Tubingen laboratory in West Germany, though   he visited Plum Island frequently. In 1960, he was forced to resign as   Tubingen's director under a dark cloud of financial embezzlement. Traub   continued sporadic lab research for another three years, and then left   Tubingen for good--a scandalous end to a checkered career. In the late 1970's,   the esteemed virologist Dr. Robert Shope, on business in Munich, paid his   father Richard's old Rockefeller Institute disciple a visit. The germ warrior   had been in early retirement for about a decade by then. 'I had dinner with   Traub one day-out of old time's sake-and he was a pretty defeated man by   then.' On May 18, 1985, the Nazis' virus warrior Dr. Erich Traub died   unexpectedly in his sleep in West Germany. He was seventy-eight years   old." (Ibid.; pp. 10-11.) 

10. "A biological warfare   mercenary who worked under three flags-Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and   the UnitedStates-Traub was never investigated for war crimes. He escaped any   inquiry into his wartime past. The full extent of his sordid endeavors went   with him to his grave. While America brought a handful of Nazi war criminals   to justice, it safeguarded many others in exchange for verses to the new   state religion-modern science and espionage. Records detailing a fraction of   Eric Traub's activities are now available to the public, but most are   withheld by Army intelligence and the CIA on grounds of national security.   But there's enough of a glimpse to draw quite a sketch." (Ibid.; p. 11.) 

11. An important chapter in the   story of how the inquiry into the possible link between Plum Island, Erich   Traub's work on behalf of the US and the spread of Lyme Disease concerns the   work of former Justice Department prosecutor John Loftus. In his book The   Belarus Secret, Loftus referred to work done on Plum Island in the early   1950's in which Nazi scientists were experimenting on diseased ticks. Might   that have referred to Traub?! " . . . Attorney John Loftus was hired in   1979 by the Office of Special Investigations, a unit set up by the Justice   Department to expose Nazi war crimes and unearth Nazis hiding in the United   States. Given top-secret clearance to review files that had been sealed for   thirty-five years, Loftus found a treasure trove of information on America's   postwar Nazi recruiting. In 1982, publicly challenging the government's   complacency with the wrongdoing, he told 60 minutes that top Nazi officers   had been protected and harbored in America by the CIA and the State   Department. 'They got the Emmy Award,' Loftus wrote. 'My family got the death   threats.'" (Ibid.; p. 13.) 

12. "Old spies reached out to   him after the publication of his book, The Belarus Secret, encouraged that   he-unlike other authors-submitted his manuscript to the government, agreeing   to censor portions to protect national security. The spooks gave him copies   of secret documents and told him stories of clandestine operations. From   these leads, Loftus ferreted out the dubious Nazi past of Austrian president   and U.N. secretary general Kurt Waldheim. Loftus revealed that during World   War II, Waldheim had been an officer in a German Army unit that committed   atrocities in Yugoslavia. A disgraced Kurt Waldheim faded from the   international scene soon thereafter." (Idem.) 

13. "In the preface of The   Belarus Secret, Loftus laid out a striking piece of information gleaned from   his spy network: 'Even more disturbing are the records of the Nazi germ   warfare scientists who came to America. They experimented with poison ticks   dropped from planes to spread rare diseases. I have received some information   suggesting that the U.S. tested some of these poison ticks on the Plum Island   artillery range off the coast of Connecticut during the early 1950's. . .   .Most of the germ warfare records have been shredded, but there is a top   secret U.S. document confirming that 'clandestine attacks on crops and   animals' took place at this time." (Idem.) 

14. More pieces of evidence on the   tantalizing trail of evidence pointing to a possible Plum Island/Traub/Lyme   disease link: "Erich Traub had been working for the American biological   warfare program from his 1949 Soviet escape until 1953. We know he consulted   with Fort Dietrick scientists and CIA operatives; that he worked for the USDA   for a brief stint; and that he spoke regularly with Plum Island director Doc   Shahan in 1952. Traub can be physically placed on Plum Island at least three   times-on dedication day in 1956 and two visits, once in 1957 and again in the   spring of 1958. Shahan, who enforced an ultrastrict policy against outside   visitors, each time received special clearance from the State Department to   allow Traub on Plum Island soil." (Ibid.; p. 14.) 

15. If in fact Traub was involved   with research on Plum Island, this development would have been consistent   with programs being conducted at that time involving experimentation on   unwitting American citizens with biological and chemical warfare research   agents: "Research unearthed three USDA files from the vault of the   National Archives-two were labeled TICK RESEARCH and a third E.TRAUB. All   three folders were empty. The caked-on dust confirms the file boxes hadn't   been open since the moment before they were taped shut in the 1950's.   Preposterous as it sounds, clandestine outdoor germ warfare trials were   almost routine during this period. In 1952, the Joint Chiefs of Staff called   for a 'vigorous, well-planned, large-scale [biological warfare] test to the   secretary of defense later that year stated, 'Steps should be take to make   certain of adequate facilities are available, including those at Fort   Detrick, Dugway Proving Ground, Fort Terry (Plum Island) and an island field   testing area.' Was Plum Island the island field testing area? Indeed, when   the Army first scouted Plum Island for its Cold War designs, they charted   wind speeds and direction and found that, much to their liking, the   prevailing winds blew out to sea." (Idem.) 

16. "One of the participating   'interested agencies' was the USDA, which admittedly set up large plots of   land throughout the Midwest for airborne anticrop germ spray tests. Fort   Detrick's Special Operations Division ran 'vulnerability tests' in which   operatives walked around Washington, D.C., and San Francisco with suitcases   holding Serratia marcescens-a bacteria recommended to Fort Detrick by Traub's   nominal supervisor, Nazi germ czar and Nuremberg defendant Dr. Kurt Blome.   Tiny perforations allowed the germs' release so they could trace the flow of   the germs through airports and bus terminals. Shortly thereafter, eleven   elderly men and women checked into hospitals with never-before-seen Serratia   marcescens infections. One patient died. Decades later when the germ tests   were disclosed, the Army denied responsibility. . . . In the summer of 1966,   Special Operations men walked into three New York City subway stations and tossed   lightbulbs filled Bacillus subtilis, a benign bacteria, onto the tracks. The   subway trains pushed the germs through the entire system and theoretically   killed over a million passengers." (Idem.) 


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17. "Tests were also run with live, virulent, anti-animal germ agents. Two hog-cholera bombs were exploded at an altitude of 1,500 feet over pigpens set up at Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. And turkey feathers laced with Newcastle disease virus were dropped on animals grazing on a University of Wisconsin farm." (Ibid.; p. 15.) 

18. "The Army never fully withdrew its germ warfare efforts against food animals. Two years after the Army gave Plum Island to the USDA-and three years after it told President Eisenhower it had ended all biological warfare against food animals-the Joint Chiefs advised that 'research on anti-animal agent-munition combinations should' continue, as well as 'field testing of anti-food agent munition combinations. . . .' In November 1957, military intelligence examined the elimination of the food supply of the Sino-Soviet Bloc, right down to the calories required for victory: 'In order to have a crippling effect on the economy of the USSR, the food and animal crop resources of the USSR would have to be damaged within a single growing season to the extent necessary to reduce the present average daily caloric intake from 2,800 calories to 1,400 calories; i.e., the starvation level. Reduction of food resources to this level, if maintained for twelve months, would produce 20 percent fatalities, and would decrease manual labor performance by 95 percent and clerical and light labor performance by 80 percent.' At least six outdoor stockyard tests occurred in 1964-65. Simulants were sprayed into stockyards in Fort Worth, Kansas City, St. Paul, Sioux Falls, and Omaha in tests determining how much foot-and-mouth disease virus would be required to destroy the food supply." (Idem.) 

19. "Had the Army commandeered Plum Island for an outdoor trial? Maybe the USDA lent a hand with the trial, as it had done out west by furnishing the large test fields. After all, the Plum Island agreement between the Army and the USDA allowed the Army to borrow the island from the USDA when necessary and in the national interest." (Idem.) 

20. A former employee at Plum Island in the 1950's has personal recollection of a "Nazi scientist" releasing ticks outdoors on Plum Island. "Traub might have monitored the tests. A source who worked on Plum Island in the 1950's recalls that animal handlers and a scientist released ticks outdoors on the island. 'They called him the Nazi scientist, when they came in, in 1951-they were inoculating these ticks,' and a picture he once saw 'shows the animal handler pointing to the area on Plum where they released the ticks.' Dr. Traub's World War II handiwork consisted of aerial virus sprays developed on Insel Riems and tested over occupied Russia, and of field work for Heinrich Himmler in Turkey. Indeed, his colleagues conducted bug trials by dropping live beetles from planes. An outdoor tick trial would have been de rigueur for Erich Traub." (Ibid.; pp. 15-16.) 

21. Next, the program sets forth the case of Steve Nostrum-an early Lyme Disease victim whose reading of Loftus' book spurred him to begin inquiring about the Plum Island/Traub connection. "Somebody gave Steve Nostrum a copy of John Loftus's The Belarus Secret at one of his support group meetings. Steve had long suspected that Plum Island played a role in the evolution of Lyme disease, given the nature of its business and its proximity to Old Lyme, Connecticut. But he never publicly voiced the hunch, fearing a loss of credibility; hard facts and statistics earned him a reputation as a leader in the Lyme disease field. Now in his hands, he had a book written by a Justice Department attorney who not only had appeared on 60 Minutes but also had brought down the secretary general of the United Nations. Nostrum disclosed the possible Plum-Lyme connection on his own television show. He invited local news reporter and Plum Island ombudsman Karl Grossman to help him explore the possibilities in light of the island's biological mishaps. Asked why he wrote about Loftus's book in his weekly newspaper column, Grossman says, 'To let the theory rise or fall. To let the public consider it. And it seemed to me that the author was a Nazi hunter and a reputable attorney-this was not trivial information provided [and it was provided] by some reliable person.'" (Idem.) 

22. "In October 1995, Nostrum, fresh off nursing duty (having earned an RN degree to help Lyme disease patients), rushed to a rare public meeting held by the USDA. In a white nurse's coat, stethoscope still around his neck, Nostrum rose. Trembling, his blond beard now streaked with gray, he clutched his copy of The Belarus Secret as he read the damning passage out loud for the USDA and the public to hear. 'I don't know whether this is true,' he said, looking at the dais. 'If it is true, there must be an investigation-if it's not true, then John Loftus needs to be prosecuted.' People in the audience clapped, and some were astonished. A few gawked, thinking he was nuts. How did the official USDA officials react? 'If stares could kill, I would have been dead,' remembers Nostrum." (Idem.) 

23. "Hiding behind the same aloof veil of secrecy they had employed for decades, the USDA brazenly cut him off. 'There are those who think that little green men are hiding out there,' the officials responded to Nostrum. 'But trust us when we say there are no space aliens and no five-legged cows.' A few laughs erupted in the crowd. 'It did nothing but detract from what I was saying,' says Nostrum. 'But I said it, and I had the documentation to support it.'" (Idem.) 

24. The author speculates about the deer and birds that visited Plum Island, and the possibility that some of the infected ticks may well have traveled to the mainland from the island on those vectors. (Carroll explains that white-tailed deer regularly swim the two miles to the island to forage and migrating birds stop on Plum Island on their way North and South during their annual migrations.) " . . . If Dr. Traub continued his outdoor germ experiments with the Army and experimented with ticks outdoors, the ticks would have made contact with mice, deer, and more than 140 species of wild birds known to frequent and nest on Plum Island. The birds spread their toxic cargo to resting and nesting perches atop the great elms and oaks of Old Lyme and elsewhere, just like they spread the West Nile virus throughout the United States." (Ibid.; p. 21.) 

25. After noting that allegations of the discovery of Bb (the bacterium that causes Lyme Disease) in the late 1940's coincides with Traub's arrival on the island, the broadcast sets forth the denials by a USDA spokesperson that there was any BW/Traub/Plum Island link to the spread of the Lyme infection. Note that Scientific American dismissed the possibility of a "Nazi scientist" link to Plum Island. In FTR#240-part of the long FTR series about "German Corporate Control over American Media"--it was noted that the Von Holtzbrinck firm controls that magazine. Like its larger competitor Bertelsmann, the Von Holtzbrinck firm is rooted firmly in the Third Reich. In FTR#226, we examined the Nazi heritage of Von Holtzbrinck and the possibility that they may employed the notorious SS officer and Goebbels protégé Werner Naumann. The possibility that the Von Holtzbrinck/Scientific American link may have had something to do with the magazine's casual dismissal of the Traub/Plum/Lyme link is not one to be too readily dismissed. "Researchers trying to prove that Lyme disease existed before 1975 claim to have isolated Bb [the bacterium that causes the infection] in ticks collected on nearby Shelter Island and Long Island in the late 1940's. That timing coincides with both Erich Traub's arrival in the United States on Project PAPERCLIP and the Army's selection of Plum Island as its offshore biological warfare laboratory. The USDA's spokesperson, Sandy Miller Hays, is unconvinced about the possibility of a link between Lyme disease and Plum Island: . . . A PR expert, Hays had Scientific American eating out of her hand in June 2000, when they reported her as saying, ' 'We still get asked about the Nazi scientists,' . . . [with] the slightest trace of weariness creeping into her voice.' In their feature story on Plum Island, the prestigious magazine dubbed the intrigue surrounding the island as a 'fanciful fictional tapestry.'" (Ibid.; pp. 21-22.) 

26. The program concludes with examination of Plum Island's work with the "Lone Star Tick"-native to Texas. The focal point of experimentation on Plum Island in the 1970's, the Lone Star tick-like Lyme Disease--is now spread throughout New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. How did that happen? " . . . The lab chief [Dr. Charles Mebus] failed to mention that Plum Island also worked on 'hard ticks,' a crucial distinction. A long overlooked document, obtained from the files of an investigation by the office of former Long Island Congressman Thomas Downey, sheds new light on the second, more damning connection to Lyme disease. A USDA 1978 internal research document titled 'African Swine Fever' notes that in 1975 and 1976, contemporaneous with the strange outbreak in Old Lyme, Connecticut, 'the adult and nymphal stages of Abylomma americanum and Abylomma cajunense were found to be incapable of harboring and transmitting African swine fever virus.' In laymen's terms, Plum Island was experimenting with the Lone Star tick and the Cayenne tick-feeding them on viruses and testing them on pigs-during the ground zero year of Lyme disease. They did not transmit African swine fever to pigs, said the document, but they might have transmitted Bb to researchers or to the island's vectors. The Lone Star tick, named after the white star on the back of the female, is a hard tick; along with its cousin, the deer tick, it is a culprit in the spread of Lyme disease. Interestingly, at that time, the Lone Star tick's habitat was confined to Texas. Today, however, it is endemic throughout New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey. And no one can really explain how it migrated all the way from Texas. . . ." (Ibid.; pp. 24-25.) 

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Subject to sections 107 through   120, the owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do   and to authorize any of the following: (1) to reproduce the copyrighted work   in copies or phono records; (2) to prepare derivative works based upon the   copyrighted work; (3) to distribute copies or phono records of the   copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by   rental, lease, or lending; (4) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic,   and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other   audiovisual works, to perform the copyrighted work publicly; (5) in the case   of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and   pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a   motion picture or other audiovisual work, to display the copyrighted work   publicly; and (6) in the case of sound recordings, to perform the copyrighted   work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission. 

TO: Members of the Faculty, Hoover   Institution Fellows, 

Academic Staff, and Library   Directors 

FROM: Condoleezza Rice, Provost 

RE: Copyright Reminder 

October 30, 1998 

This memorandum provides a general   description of the applicability of the copyright law and the so-called   "fair use" exemptions to the copyright law's general prohibition on   copying. It also describes "safe harbor" guidelines applicable to   classroom copying. 

The federal copyright statute   governs the reproduction of works of authorship. In general, works governed   by copyright law include such traditional works of authorship as books,   photographs, music, drama, video and sculpture, and also software,   multimedia, and databases. Copyrighted works are protected regardless of the   medium in which they are created or reproduced; thus, copyright extends to   digital works and works transformed into a digital format. Copyrighted works   are not limited to those that bear a copyright notice. As a result of changes   in copyright law, works published since March 1, 1989 need not bear a   copyright notice to be protected under the statute. 

Two provisions of the copyright   statute are of particular importance to teachers and researchers: 

* a provision that codifies the   doctrine of "fair use," under which limited copying of copyrighted   works without the permission of the owner is allowed for certain teaching and   research purposes; and 

* a provision that establishes   special limitations and exemptions for the reproduction of copyrighted works   by libraries and archives. 

The concept of fair use is   necessarily somewhat vague when discussed in the abstract. Its application   depends critically on the particular facts of the individual situation.   Neither the case law nor the statutory law provides bright lines concerning   which uses are fair and which are not. However, you may find it helpful to   refer to certain third party source materials. Guidelines for classroom   copying by not-for-profit educational institutions have been prepared by a   group consisting of the Authors League of America, the Association of   American Publishers, and an ad hoc committee of educational institutions and   organizations. In addition, fair use guidelines for educational multimedia   have been prepared by a group coordinated by the consortium of College and   University Multimedia Centers (CCUMC). These guidelines describe safe harbor   conditions, but do not purport to define the full extent of "fair   use." 

The guidelines, as well as other   source material, are available through a variety of resources, including   through the world wide web site http://fairuse.stanford.edu. Stanford   University Libraries & Academic Information Resources, in collaboration   with the Council on Library Resources and FindLaw Internet Legal Resources,   are sponsors of this web site. The site assembles a wide range of materials   related to the use of copyrighted material by individuals, libraries, and   educational institutions. 

I hope that the discussion below   helps to clarify further the nature of "fair use." 

I. Fair Use for Teaching and   Research 

The "fair use" doctrine   allows limited reproduction of copyrighted works for educational and research   purposes. The relevant portion of the copyright statue provides that the   "fair use" of a copyrighted work, including reproduction "for   purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching (including multiple   copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research" is not an   infringement of copyright. The law lists the following factors as the ones to   be evaluated in determining whether a particular use of a copyrighted work is   a permitted "fair use," rather than an infringement of the   copyright: 

* the purpose and character of the   use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit   educational purposes; 

* the nature of the copyrighted   work; 

* the amount and substantiality of   the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole, and 

* the effect of the use upon the   potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. 

Although all of these factors will   be considered, the last factor is the most important in determining whether a   particular use is "fair." Where a work is available for purchase or   license from the copyright owner in the medium or format desired, copying of   all or a significant portion of the work in lieu of purchasing or licensing a   sufficient number of "authorized" copies would be presumptively   unfair. Where only a small portion of a work is to be copied and the work   would not be used if purchase or licensing of a sufficient number of   authorized copies were required, the intended use is more likely to be found   to be fair. 

A federal appeals court recently   decided an important copyright fair use case involving course packs. In   Princeton University Press, et.al. v. Michigan Document Services, the U.

Fair Use Continued