Light: All light have a frequency and an electromagnetic wave length of photons and particles consisting of electrons that show the same reactions as photons.The frequency is the number of waves that pass a point in space during any time interval, usually a second. The positron or anti-electron is the antiparticle of the antimatter counterpart of the electron. The positron has an electrical charge of +1 e, a spin of 1/2 (the same as the electron), and has the same mass of an electron. When a positron collides with an electron, annihilation occurs. They both cease to exist. If this collision occurs at low energies, it results in the production of two or more photons.
Light travels at 186,282 miles per second in a vacuum. When we use light to send an electrical impulse that impulse is traveling at the speed of light. The wave lengths of light are measured in nano-meters known as nm. Light includes a light spectrum, that’s light we can see. We don’t see light in space unless a planet has an atmosphere, is a sun, a type of gas that glows like neon or is an object reflecting light, otherwise space would be a very huge spotlight. In our atmosphere we see light as a wavelength color because the speed of light is slowed down, by about 53 miles a second letting us see light. For the young scientist I hope this answers an unasked question:
Color Wavelength Frequency
red, 740-625nm, 405-480THz
penetrates ¼ inch into tissue for muscle and tendons
orange, 625-590nm, 480-510THz
yellow, 590-565nm 510-530THz
green, 565-520nm, 530-580THz
cyan, 520-500nm, 580-600THz
blue, 500-430nm, 600-700THz
penetrates 1/8 inch thru skin into pores and
kills Acne, Staph and MRSA
violet, 430-380nm, 700-790THz
This red light is outside the light spectrum, but can be seen with a digital camera. The high wave length can reach 1 ½ inches thru tissue and into bone. A Laser is over 1000nm.
Lasers, 1000nm Plus. There is the risk of getting burned and we do not use anything
that can harm a client.
This article is about a branch of physics, Optics, a book by Sir Isaac Newton.
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.
Most optical phenomena can be accounted for by using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces. Physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics. Historically, the ray-based model of light was developed first, followed by the wave model of light. Progress in electromagnetic theory in the 19th century led to the discovery that light waves were in fact electromagnetic radiation.
Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties. Explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering light's particle-like properties, the light is modeled as a collection of particles called "photons". Quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems.
Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields, photography, and medicine(particularly ophthalmology and optometry). Practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and fiber optics.
The photon is a type of elementary particle. It is the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light and radio waves, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. Photons are mass less, [a] and they always move at the speed of light in vacuum, 299792458 m/s.
Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, their behavior featuring properties of both waves and particles. The modern photon concept originated during the first two decades of the 20th century with the work of Albert Einstein, who built upon the research of Max Planck. While trying to explain how matter and electromagnetic radiation could be in thermal equilibrium with one another, Planck proposed that the energy stored within a material object should be regarded as composed of an integer number of discrete, equal-sized parts. Einstein introduced the idea that light itself is made of discrete units of energy. Experiments validated Einstein's approach,and in 1926, Gilbert N. Lewis popularized the term photon for these energy units.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other elementary particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in space-time. The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry. The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, including lasers, Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum field theory, and the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photo-chemistry, high-resolution microscopy, and measurements of molecular distances. Recently, photons have been studied as elements of quantum computers, and for applications in optical imaging and optical communication such as quantum cryptography.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e or β, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family,and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value, expressed in units of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. The wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass and hence a longer de Broglie wavelength for a given energy.
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.Since an electron has charge, it has a surrounding electric field, and if that electron is moving relative to an observer, said observer will observe it to generate a magnetic field. Electromagnetic fields produced from other sources will affect the motion of an electron according to the Lorentz force law. Electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when they are accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields. Special telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics. The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms. Ionization or differences in the proportions of negative electrons versus positive nuclei changes the binding energy of an atomic system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding.In 1838, British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms.Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleon-synthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere. The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron; it is identical to the electron except that it carries electrical and other charges of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.